ebook publishing For The Amazon Kindle And Barnes & Noble Nook

 Profit From The eReader Revolution

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Click Here To Get Your Book On Amazon And Barnes & Noble Now
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If you are thinking of writing the next great novel, self-help, spiritual, do-it-yourself or PC training manuscript, you may have come to that very important question: "Which service do I choose?".
There are literally dozens of self  publishing services to choose from. A publishing house or many publishing houses will entice you by introducing very alluring low cost packages they charge you to transform your manuscript into a "print on demand" book.  The services these vanity publishing companies provide without a doubt give the average person wanting to be a published author; the opportunity they would not otherwise have with a traditional publishing company, to now see their "labor of love" in a finished product.

Traditional books however are rapidly becoming secondary to that of the new generation of e-Readers and  ebooks, thanks to technology and the introduction to the phenomenal creation of the Kindle, the Nook and the ipad. 

Amazon released the Kindle First Generation on November 19, 2007, and it sold out in five and a half hours. The device remained out of stock for five months until late April 2008.

Amazon did not sell the Kindle First Generation outside the United States. Plans for a launch in the UK and other European countries were delayed by problems with signing up suitable wireless network operators.

Specific Kindle sales numbers are not released by the company, but Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO of Amazon.com, stated in a shareholders' meeting that "millions of people now own Kindles." According to anonymous inside sources, over three million Kindles have been sold as of December 2009 while external estimates as of Q4-2009 place the number at about 3.5 million and are expected to more than double that number by Q1-2011 and there are already ebook sellers lining up to cash in on this market. 

The Barnes & Noble Nook (styled "nook") is a brand of electronic-book readers developed by American book retailer Barnes & Noble, based on the Android platform. The original device was announced in the United States on 20 October 2009, and was released 30 November 2009 for US$259. The original Nook includes Wi-Fi and AT&T 3G wireless connectivity, a six-inch E Ink display, and a separate, smaller color touchscreen that serves as the primary input device. On June 21, 2010 Barnes & Noble reduced the Nook's price to US$199 and announced the launch of a new Wi-Fi-only model for US$149.

On October 26, 2010 the Nook Color was announced for a November 19, 2010 ship date.

Both eReaders have a huge user base of readers and this is where eBook Publishing comes in.

eBook publishing house will convert pdf to ebook using our powerful and very professional ebook reader software. We can also convert your .txt or .doc file, format it and make it available for sale on the Amazon Kindle ebook reader for a very low, unheard of  fee of just $24.99

If you prefer to have your book available for both Amazon and Barnes & Noble, the fee is an unheard of $49.99

That is a fraction of  the cost charged by all self publishing companies

This is a service for those wanting a more leveraged and cost effective way to have their manuscript available and for sale to millions of Kindle readers.

What are ebooks:
An electronic book (also e-book, ebook, digital book) is a text and image-based publication in digital form produced on, published by, and readable on computers or other digital devices. Sometimes the equivalent of a conventional printed book, e-books can also be born digital. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines the e-book as "an electronic version of a printed book," but e-books can and do exist without any printed equivalent. E-books are usually read on dedicated hardware devices known as e-Readers or e-book devices. Personal computers and some cell phones can also be used to read e-books.

History:
Among the earliest general e-books were those in Project Gutenberg , in 1971. An early e-book implementation were the desktop prototypes for a proposed notebook computer, the Dynabook, in the 1970s at PARC, which would be a general-purpose portable personal computer, including reading books.

Early e-books were generally written for specialty areas and a limited audience, meant to be read only by small and devoted interest groups. The scope of the subject matter of these e-books included technical manuals for hardware, manufacturing techniques and other subjects. In the 1990s, the general availability of theInternetmade transferring electronic files much easier, including e-books.

Numerous e-book formats emerged and proliferated, some supported by major software companies such as Adobe with its PDF format, and others supported by independent and open-source programmers. Multiple readers followed multiple formats, most of them specializing in only one format, and thereby fragmenting the e-book market even more. Due to exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-books, the fractured market of independents and specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and selling e-books. E-books continued to gain in their own underground markets. Many e-book publishers began distributing books that were in thepublic domain. At the same time, authors with books that were not accepted by publishers offered their works online so they could be seen by others. Unofficial (and occasionally unauthorized) catalogs of books became available over the web, and sites devoted to e-books began disseminating information about e-books to the public.

U.S. Libraries began providing free e-books to the public in 1998 through their web sites and associated services. although the e-books were primarily scholarly, technical or professional in nature, and could not be downloaded. In 2003, libraries began offering free downloadable popular fiction and non-fiction e-books to the public, launching an e-book lending model that worked much more successfully for public libraries. The number of library e-book distributors and lending models continued to increase over the next few years. In 2010, a Public Library Funding and Technology Access Study found that 66% of public libraries in the U.S. were offering e-books, and a large movement in the library industry began seriously examining the issues related to lending e-books, acknowledging a tipping point of broad e-book usage.

As of 2009, new marketing models for e-books were being developed and dedicated reading hardware was produced. E-books (as opposed to ebook readers) have yet to achieve global distribution. In the United States, as of September 2009, the Amazon Kindle model and Sony's PRS-500 were the dominant e-reading devices. By March 2010, some reported that the Barnes & Noble Nook may be selling more units than the Kindle On January 27, 2010 Apple, Inc launched a multi-function device called the iPad and announced agreements with five of the six largest publishers that would allow Apple to distribute e-books. However, many publishers and authors have not endorsed the concept of electronic publishing, citing issues with demand, piracy and proprietary devices.

In July 2010, online bookseller Amazon.com reported sales of ebooks for its proprietary Kindle outnumbered sales of hardcover books for the first time ever during the second quater of 2010, saying it sold 140 e-books for every 100 hardcover books, including hardcovers for which there was no digital edition. In July this number had increased to 180 Kindle ebooks per 100 hardcovers. Paperback book sales are still much larger than either hardcover or e-book; the American Publishing Association estimated e-books represented 8.5% of sales as of mid-2010. In Canada, the option of ebook publishing took a higher profile when the novel, The Sentamentalist, won the prestigious national Giller Prize. Owing to the small scale of the novel's independent publisher, the book was initially not widely available in printed form, but the ebook edition had no such problems with it becoming the top-selling title for Kobo devices.

Timeline:
1971

Michael S. Hart launches Project Gutenberg.

1985–1992

Robert Stein starts Voyager Company Expanded Books and books on CD-ROMs.

1992

Charles Stack's Book Stacks Unlimited begins selling new physical books online.

1993

Zahur Klemath Zapata develops the first software to read digital books. Digital book version 1 and the first digital book is published On Murder Considered as one of the Fine Arts (Thomas de Quincey).

Digital Book, Inc. offers the first 50 digital books in floppy disk with Digital Book Format (DBF).

Hugo Award for Best Novel nominee texts published on CD-ROM by Brad Templeton.

Bibliobytes, a project of free digital books online in Internet.

1995

Amazon starts to sell physical books on the Internet.

Online poet Alexis Kirke discusses the need for wireless internet electronic paper readers in his article "The Emuse".

1996

Project Gutenberg reaches 1,000 titles. The target is 1,000,000.

1998

Kim Blagg obtained the first ISBN issued to an ebook and began marketing multimedia-enhanced ebooks on CDs through retailers including amazon.com, bn.com and borders.com. Shortly thereafter through her company "Books OnScreen" she introduced the ebooks at the Book Expo America in Chicago, IL to an impressed, but unconvinced bookseller audience.

First ebook Readers: Rocket ebook and SoftBook.

Cybook / Cybook Gen1 Sold and manufactured at first by Cytale (1998–2003) then by Bookeen.

Websites selling ebooks in English, like eReader.com and eReads.com.

1999

Baen Books opens up the Baen Free Library.

Webscriptions starts selling unencrypted eBooks.

2000

Microsoft Reader with ClearType technology.

Stephen King offers his book "Riding the Bullet" in digital file; it can only be read on a computer.

2001

Todoebook.com, the first website selling ebooks in Spanish.

2002

Random House and HarperCollins start to sell digital versions of their titles in English.

2004

Sony Librie with e-ink.

2005

Amazon buys Mobipocket.

Bookboon.com is launched, allowing people to download free textbooks and travel guide eBooks.

2006

Sony Reader with e-ink.

LibreDigital launched BookBrowse as an online reader for publisher content.

BooksOnBoard, one of the largest independent ebookstores, opens and sells ebooks and audiobooks in six different formats.

2007.

Amazon launches Kindle in US.

Bookeen launched Cybook Gen3 in Europe.

2008

Adobe and Sony agreed to share their technologies (Reader and DRM).

Sony sells the Sony Reader PRS-505 in UK and France.

BooksOnBoard is first to sell ebooks for iPhones.

2009

Bookeen releases the Cybook Opus in the US and in Europe.

Sony releases the Reader Pocket Edition and Reader Touch Edition.

Amazon releases the Kindle 2.

Amazon releases the Kindle DX in the US.

Barnes & Noble releases the Nook in the US.

Bookboon.com achieves over 10 Million downloads in one year — placing the company as the world's largest publisher of free eBooks.

2010

Amazon releases the Kindle DX International Edition worldwide.

Bookeen reveals the Cybook Orizon at CES.

TurboSquid Magazine announces first magazine publication using Apple's iTunes LP format.

Apple releases the iPad with an e-book app called iBooks. Between its release in April 2010, to October, Apple has sold 7 million iPads.

Kobo Inc. releases its Kobo eReader to be sold at Indigo/Chapters in Canada and Borders in the United States.

Amazon.com reported that its e-book sales outnumbered sales of hardcover books for the first time ever during the second quarter of 2010.

Amazon releases the third generation kindle, available in 3G+Wi-Fi and Wi-Fi versions.

Kobo Inc. releases an updated Kobo eReader which now includes Wi-Fi.

Barnes & Noble releases the new NOOKcolor.

Sony releases its second generation Daily Edition PRS-950.

PocketBook expands its successful line of e-readers in the ever-growing market.

Google launches Google eBooks

Formats:
There are a variety of e-book formats used to create and publish e-books. A writer or publisher has many options when it comes to choosing a format for production. Every format has its proponents and champions, and debates over which format is best can become intense.

Comparison of e-books with printed books:

Advantages There are over 2 million free books available for download as of August 2009. Mobile availability of e-books may be provided for users with a mobile data connection, so that these e-books need not be stored on the device. An e-book can be offered indefinitely, without ever going "out of print". In the space that a comparably sized print book takes up, an e-reader can potentially contain thousands of e-books, limited only by its memory capacity. If space is at a premium, such as in a backpack or at home, it can be an advantage that an e-book collection takes up little room and weight.

E-book websites can include the ability to translate books into many different languages, making the works available to speakers of languages not covered by printed translations. Depending on the device, an e-book may be readable in low light or even total darkness. Many newer readers have the ability to display motion, enlarge or change fonts, use Text-to-speech software to read the text aloud for visually impaired, partially sighted, elderly or dyslectic people, search for key terms, find definitions, or allow highlighting bookmarking and annotation. Devices that utilize E Ink can imitate the look and ease of readability of a printed work while consuming very little power, allowing continuous reading for weeks at time.

While an e-book reader costs much more than one book, the electronic texts are generally cheaper. Moreover, a great share of books are available free of charge. For example, all fiction from before the year 1900 is in the public domain. Also, libraries lend more current e-book titles for limited times, free samples are available of many publications, and there are other lending models being piloted as well. E-books can be printed for less than the price of traditional new books using new on-demand book printers.

An e-book can be purchased/borrowed, downloaded, and used immediately, whereas when one buys or borrows a book, one has to go to a bookshop or library during limited hours, or wait for a delivery. The production of e-books does not consume paper, ink, etc. Printed books use 3 times more raw materials and 78 times more water to produce albeit they do not require a machine for use (out of context Depending on possible digital rights management, e-books can be backed up to recover them in the case of loss or damage and it may be possible to recover a new copy without cost from the distributor. Compared to printed publishing, it is cheaper and easier for authors to self-publish e-books. Also, the dispersal of a free e-book copy can stimulate the sales of the printed version.

Drawbacks Ebook formats and file types continue to develop and change through time through advances and developments in technology or the introduction of new proprietary formats. While printed books remain readable for many years, e-books may need to be copied or converted to a new carrier or file type over time. PDF and epub are growing standards, but are not universal. The lack of a single universal standard could significantly affect the longevity of some works and their availability or readability in the future as a result of the format(s) used at the time of production.

Not all books are available as e-books. Paper books can be bought and wrapped for a present and a library of books can provide visual appeal, while the digital nature of e-books makes them non-visible or tangible. E-books cannot provide the physical feel of the cover, paper, and binding of the original printed work. An author who publishes a book often puts more into the work than simply the words on the pages. E-books may cause people "to do the grazing and quick reading that screens enable, rather than be by themselves with the author's ideas". They may use the e-books simply for reference purposes rather than reading for pleasure and leisure. Books with large pictures (such as children's books) or diagrams are more inconvenient for viewing and reading.

A book will never turn off and would be unusable only if damaged or after many decades. The shelf life of a printed book exceeds that of an e-book reader, as over time the reader's battery will drain and require recharging. Additionally, "As in the case of microfilm, there is no guarantee that [electronic] copies will last. Bits become degraded over time. Documents may get lost in cyberspace...Hardware and software become extinct at a distressing rate."  E-book readers are more susceptible to damage from being dropped or hit than a print book. Due to faults in hardware or software, e-book readers may malfunction and data loss can occur. As with any piece of technology, the reader must be protected from the elements (such as extreme cold, heat, water, etc.), while print books are not susceptible to damage from electromagnetic pulses, surges, impacts, or extreme temperatures.

The cost of an e-book reader far exceeds that of a single book, and e-books often cost the same as their print versions. Due to the high cost of the initial investment in some form of e-reader, e-books are cost prohibitive to much of the world's population. Furthermore, there is no used e-book market, so consumers will neither be able to recoup some of their costs by selling an unwanted title they have finished, nor will they be able to buy used copies at significant discounts, as they can now easily do with printed books. Because of the high-tech appeal of the e-reader, they are a greater target for theft than an individual print book. Along with the theft of the physical device, any e-books it contains also become stolen. E-books purchased from vendors like Amazon or Barnes & Noble.com are stored "in the cloud" on servers and "digital lockers" and have the benefit of being easily retrieved if an e-reading device is lost. Not all e-booksellers are cloud based; if an e-book is stolen, accidentally lost, or deleted, in the absence of a backup it may have to be repurchased.

The screen resolutions of reading devices are currently lower than actual printed materials. Because of proprietary formats or lack of file support, formatted e-books may be unusable on certain readers. Additionally, the reader's interaction with the reader may cause discomfort, for example glare on the screen or difficulty holding the device. Due to digital rights management, customers typically cannot resell or loan their e-books to other readers. However, some Barnes & Noble e-books are lendable for two weeks via their 'LendMe' technology. Additionally, the potential for piracy of e-books may make publishers and authors reluctant to distribute digitally. E-book readers require various toxic substances to produce, are non-biodegradable, and the disposal of their batteries in particular raises environmental concerns. As technologies rapidly change and old devices become obsolete, there will be larger amounts of toxic wastes that are not easily biodegradable like paper.

E-books and software can easily track data, times, usage, pages, and details about what one is reading and how often. Similar to this is the growing amount of data available through Google search engines, Facebook, and through data mining. For the first time in history it is now far easier to track and record what specific people might be reading. The notions of privacy, private writing, solitude, and personal reading are changing.

Digital rights management Anti-circumvention techniques may be used to restrict what the user may do with an e-book. For instance, it may not be possible to transfer ownership of an e-book to another person, though such a transaction is common with physical books. Some devices can phone home to track readers and reading habits, restrict printing, or arbitrarily modify reading material. This includes restricting the copying and distribution of works in the public domain through the use of "click-wrap" licensing, effectively limiting the rights of the public to distribute, sell or use texts in the public domain freely.

Most e-book publishers do not warn their customers about the possible implications of the digital rights management tied to their products. Generally they claim that digital rights management is meant to prevent copying of the e-book. However in many cases it is also possible that digital rights management will result in the complete denial of access by the purchaser to the e-book. With some formats of DRM, the e-book is tied to a specific computer or device. In these cases the DRM will usually let the purchaser move the book a limited number of times after which he cannot use it on any additional devices. If the purchaser upgrades or replaces their devices eventually they may lose access to their purchase. Some forms of digital rights management depend on the existence of online services to authenticate the purchasers. When the company that provides the service goes out of business or decides to stop providing the service, the purchaser will no longer be able to access the e-book.

As with digital rights management in other media, e-books are more like rental or leasing than purchase. The restricted book comes with a number of restrictions, and eventually access to the purchase can be removed by a number of different parties involved. These include the publisher of the book, the provider of the DRM scheme, and the publisher of the reader software. These are all things that are significantly different from the realm of experiences anyone has had with a physical copy of the book.

Production:
Some e-books are produced simultaneously with the production of a printed format, as described in electronic publishing, though in many instances they may not be put on sale until later. Often, e-books are produced from pre-existing hard-copy books, generally by document scanning, sometimes with the use of robotic book scanners, having the technology to quickly scan books without damaging the original print edition. Scanning a book produces a set of image files, which may additionally be converted into text format by an OCR program. Occasionally, as in some e-text projects, a book may be produced by re-entering the text from a keyboard.

As a newer development, sometimes only the electronic version of a book is produced by the publisher. It is even possible to release an e-book chapter by chapter as each chapter is written. This is useful in fields such as information technology where topics can change quickly in the months that it takes to write a typical book . It is also possible to convert an electronic book to a printed book by print on demand. However these are exceptions as tradition dictates that a book be launched in the print format and later if the author wishes an electronic version is produced.

There are some parts of the industry where there are particularly notable leading firms. In the general field of science-fiction and fantasy, Baen Books, an American publishing company established in 1983 by science fiction publishing industry long-timer Jim Baen (1943–2006) has a well-established position. It is a science fiction and fantasy publishing house that specializes in space opera/military science fiction and fantasy (though it does not restrict itself to these subgenres). It is notable for releasing books without DRM in a variety of formats, before hard-copy publication, and pre-releasing ebooks in parts before the hard-copy release. Many older titles are available for free, especially the first book in a series.

As of 2010, there is no industry-wide e-book bestseller list, but various e-book vendors compile bestseller lists, such as those by Amazon Kindle Bestsellers and Fictionwise. There are two yearly awards for excellence in e-books—the EPIC eBook Award (formerly EPPIE) given by EPIC, and the Dream Realm Award for science fiction, fantasy and horror e-books. Both awards have been given since 2000.

e-Readers:
e-Readers may be specifically designed for that purpose, or intended for other purposes as well. The term is restricted to hardware devices and used to describe a category type.

Specialized devices have the advantage of doing one thing well. Specifically, they tend to have the right screen size, battery lifespan, lighting and weight. A disadvantage of such devices is that they are often expensive when compared to multi-purpose devices such as laptops and PDAs.

In 2010, competition sent the price for the most popular electronic reading devices below USD 200.



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Amazon Kindle
The Amazon Kindle is a portable e-book reader. More precisely, it is a software, hardware and network platform developed by Amazon.com subsidiary that utilizes wireless connectivity to enable users to shop for, download, browse, and read e-books, newspapers, magazines, blogs, and other digital media in some countries.

Several hardware devices support this platform, including a main "Kindle" line and a parallel "Kindle DX" line. The most recent Kindle device is the third incarnation of the main line, officially named "Kindle", but usually referred to as "Kindle 3". Kindle 3 was released on August 27, 2010. User reports indicate that the new display on the Kindle 3, with E Ink Pearl technology, is noticeably superior to previous generations.

The Kindle DX line features larger screens than the main Kindle line and is marketed as more suitable for displaying newspaper and textbook content. Amazon has also introduced Kindle software for use on various devices and platforms, including Microsoft Windows, iOS, BlackBerry, Mac OS X (10.5 onwards), Android and Windows Phone 7.

The Kindle hardware devices use an e-ink electronic paper display that features 16 shades of grey. This allows for a long battery life and easy readability. Content for the Kindle can be purchased online and downloaded wirelessly in some countries, using either standard Wi-Fi or Amazon's 3G "Whispernet" network. Whispernet is accessible without any monthly fee or wireless subscription, although fees can be incurred for the delivery of periodicals and other content when roaming internationally beyond the customer's home country. Through a service called "Whispersync", customers can synchronize reading progress, bookmarks and other information across Kindle hardware devices and other mobile devices.

History
Original version
Amazon released the Kindle First Generation on November 19, 2007, for US$399 and was sold out in five and a half hours. The device remained out of stock for five months until late April 2008.

It is the only Kindle with expandable memory, via an SD card slot.

The device features a 6 inch (diagonal) 4-level grayscale display, with 250 MB of internal memory, which can hold approximately 200 non-illustrated titles.

Amazon did not sell the Kindle First Generation outside the United States. Plans for a launch in the UK and other European countries were delayed by problems with signing up suitable wireless network operators.

Kindle 2
On February 10, 2009, Amazon announced the Kindle 2. It became available for purchase on February 23, 2009. The Kindle 2 features a text-to-speech option to read the text aloud, and 2 GB of internal memory of which 1.4 GB is user-accessible. By Amazon's estimates the Kindle 2 can hold about 1500 non-illustrated books. Unlike the Kindle First Generation, Kindle 2 does not have a slot for SD memory cards. It was slimmer than the original Kindle.
To promote the new Kindle, author Stephen King made UR, his then-new novella, available exclusively through the Kindle Store. On October 22, 2009, Amazon stopped selling the original Kindle 2 in favor of the international version it had introduced earlier in the month.

According to an early review by iFixIt, the Kindle 2 features a Freescale 532 MHz, ARM-11 90 nm processor, 32 MB main memory, 2 GB moviNAND flash storage and a 3.7 V 1530 mAh lithium polymer battery.

On November 24, 2009, Amazon released a firmware update for the Kindle 2 that it said increases battery life by 85% and introduces native PDF support.

On July 8, 2009, Amazon reduced price of the Kindle 2 from the original $359 to $299. On October 7, 2009, Amazon further reduced the price of the Kindle 2 to $259. The Kindle 2 was criticized for its high original retail price, compared to the $185.49 manufacturing cost estimated by iSuppli.

International version On October 7, 2009, Amazon announced an international version of the Kindle 2 that can download new titles in over 100 countries. It became available October 19, 2009. The international Kindle 2 is physically very similar to the U.S.-only model, although it uses a different mobile network standard.

The original Kindle 2 uses CDMA2000, for use on the Sprint network. The international version uses standard GSM and 3G GSM, enabling it to be used on AT&T's U.S. mobile network and internationally in 100 other countries.

Kindle 2 International Version is believed to have a noticeably higher contrast screen, although Amazon does not advertise this. Another review done by Gadget lab, disputes this and actually states that the font appears to be fuzzier than the first generation kindle. The review goes on to say that changes to the Kindle 2 have made it harder to read the smaller font sizes that most books use. On another website. They also discuss how the font size is at times worse than the kindle 1's. It appears that whether or not the kindle 2 is clearer or fuzzier than the previous model depends on the font size.

On October 22, 2009, Amazon lowered the price on the international version from $279 to $259 and discontinued the U.S.-only model. On June 21, 2010, hours after Barnes & Noble lowered the price of its Nook, Amazon lowered the price of the Kindle 2 to $189, undercutting the Nook by $10.

Kindle DX
The larger Kindle DX with a Kindle 2 for size comparison Amazon announced the Kindle DX on May 6, 2009. This device has a larger screen than the standard Kindle and supports simple PDF files. It was also the thinnest Kindle to date and offers an accelerometer, which enables the user to seamlessly rotate pages between landscape and portrait orientations when the Kindle DX is turned on its side. It is marketed as more suitable for displaying newspaper and textbook content.

International version Since January 19, 2010, the Kindle DX International has shipped in 100 countries. The Kindle DX comes with a 24.6 cm (9.7 inch) E Ink screen instead of the 15.2 cm (6 inch) normal Kindle screen.

Kindle DX Graphite On July 1, 2010, Amazon released a new revision of the Kindle DX (3rd Generation Kindle DX). As well as dropping the price from $489 to $379, the new Kindle DX has an e-ink screen with 50% better contrast ratio and comes only in a "graphite" color. It is speculated the color change is to improve contrast ratio perception even further, as some users found the previous white casing highlighted the fact that the e-ink background is gray and not white. This version, however, lacks the ability to connect via Wi-fi and only 3G wireless connections are allowed.

Kindle 3
Amazon announced a new generation of the Kindle on July 28, 2010. While Amazon does not officially add numbers to the end of each Kindle denoting its generation, most reviewers, customers and press companies refer to this updated Kindle as the "Kindle 3".

The Kindle 3 is available in two versions. One of these, the Kindle Wi-Fi, is initially priced at US$139 / GB£111, and connects to the Internet exclusively via public or private Wi-Fi networks. The other version, considered a replacement to the Kindle 2, is priced at US$189 / GB£152 and includes both 3G and Wi-Fi connectivity. The built-in free 3G connectivity uses the same wireless signals that cell phones use, allowing it to have download and purchase availability from any location with cell service. The new Kindle with 3G is available in two colors: classic white and graphite. Both models use the new E ink "Pearl" display, which has much more contrast than the previous display and a faster refresh rate. However, it remains slower than traditional LCD displays.

The Kindle 3 utilizes a Freescale i. MX353 applications processor, Freescale MC13892 power management chip, Epson EINK controller and Samsung DRAM and Flash. Other hardware changes include a larger 1750 mAh lithium polymer battery, AnyDATA DTP-600W 3G GSM modem and Atheros AR6102G 802.11bg WiFi chip.

The third-generation Kindle is 0.5 inches shorter and 0.5 inches narrower than the Kindle 2. It supports additional fonts and international Unicode characters. An experimental browser based on the popular WebKit rendering engine is included, as well as text-to-speech menu navigation. Internal memory is expanded to 4 GB, with approximately 3 GB available for user content. Battery life is advertised at up to one month of reading on a single charge with the wireless turned off.

Pre-orders for the new Kindle began concurrent with the announcement of the device, and Amazon began shipping the devices on August 27, 2010 in the United States and United Kingdom.

With the announcement of the Kindle 3, Amazon also launched an Amazon.co.uk version of the Kindle store. As yet it's unclear whether users who move out of the UK will be able to transfer existing purchases to Amazon.com. However, existing UK users are offered the option of migrating to the UK Kindle store, with no loss to their existing purchases.

On August 25, 2010, Amazon announced that the Kindle 3 was the fastest-selling Kindle ever.

In late January 2011, Amazon announced that digital books were outselling their traditional print counterparts for the first time ever on its site, with an average of 115 Kindle editions being sold for every 100 paperback editions.

Generally, Kindle 3 received good reviews after launch. In their Kindle 3 Review, Review Horizon describes it as offering "the best reading experience in its class" while Engadget says "In the standalone category, the Kindle is probably the one to beat".

Kindle applications Amazon released a "Kindle for PC" application in late 2009, available as a free download for Windows 7, Vista, and XP. This application allows thousands of books to be read on a personal computer in color, with no Kindle unit required, as e-books can simply be purchased from Amazon's store. Amazon later released a version for the Macintosh, in early 2010. In June 2010, Amazon released a "Kindle for Android" version. With the Android application release, versions for the Apple iPhone, the iPad, PC and Mac computers, and BlackBerry cellphones are also available. In January 2011, Amazon released Kindle for Windows Phone 7.

Kindle sales Specific Kindle sales numbers are not released by the company, however, Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO of Amazon.com, stated in a shareholders' meeting in January 2010 that "millions of people now own Kindles." According to anonymous inside sources, over three million Kindles have been sold as of December 2009, while external estimates, as of Q4-2009, place the number at about 1.5 million. According to James McQuivey of Forrester Research, estimates are ranging around four million, as of mid-2010. The third-generation Kindle is now the bestselling product in Amazon's history, eclipsing "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (Book 7).

Overview
Content from Amazon and some other content providers is primarily encoded in Amazon's proprietary Kindle format (AZW). It is also possible to load content in various formats from a computer by simply transferring it to the Kindle via USB (for free) or by emailing it to a registered email address provided by Amazon (for a fee via 3G, or free via Wi-Fi); the email service can convert a number of document formats to Amazon's AZW format and then transmit the result to the associated Kindle over Whispernet. In addition to published content such as books and periodicals, Kindle users can also access Wikipedia, free of charge, via either WiFi or 3G.

The Kindle's terms of use forbid transferring Amazon e-books to another user or a different type of device. However, Amazon announced on December 30, 2010 that lending books on Kindles was allowed. Users can select reading material using the Kindle itself or through a computer at the Amazon Kindle store and can download content through the Kindle Store, which upon the initial launch of the Kindle had more than 88,000 digital titles available for download. This number continued steadily increasing to more than 275,000 by late 2008, and exceeded 500,000 in the spring of 2010. As of July 24, 2010, there were more than 650,000 books available for download. In late 2007, new releases and New York Times best sellers were being offered for approximately US$11, with first chapters of many books offered as free samples. Many titles, including some classics, are offered free of charge or at a low price, which has been stated to relate to the cost of adapting the book to the Kindle format. Magazines, newspapers and blogs via RSS are provided by Amazon per a monthly subscription fee or a free trial period. Newspaper subscriptions cost from US$1.99 to $27.99 per month; magazines charge between $1.25 and $10.99 per month, and blogs charge from $0.99 to $1.99 per month. Amazon e-book sales overtook print for one day for the first time on Christmas Day of 2009.

International users of Kindle pay different prices for books depending on their registered country. For U.S. customers traveling abroad, Amazon originally charged a $1.99 fee to download books over 3G while overseas. That charge was quietly dropped in May 2010. Fees remain for wireless delivery of periodical subscriptions and personal documents.

In addition to the Kindle store, paid content for the Kindle can be purchased from various independent sources such as Fictionwise, Mobipocket and Webscriptions. Public domain titles are also obtainable for the Kindle via content providers such as Project Gutenberg and World Public Library.

The device is sold with electronic editions of its owner's manual and the New Oxford American Dictionary (UK version includes, Oxford Dictionary of English). Users are able to purchase different dictionaries from the Kindle store as specified in the included manual. The Kindle also contains several free experimental features including a basic web browser. Users can also play music from MP3 files in the background in the order they were added to the Kindle. Operating system updates are designed to be received wirelessly and installed automatically during a period in sleep mode in which wireless is turned on.

File formats
Original Kindle The original Kindle supported only unprotected Mobipocket books (MOBI, PRC), plain text files (TXT), Topaz format books (TPZ), and Amazon's proprietary DRM-restricted format (AZW). Version 2.3 firmware upgrade for Kindle 2 (U.S. and International) added native Portable Document Format (PDF) support. Earlier versions did not fully support PDF, but Amazon provided "experimental" conversion to the native AZW format, with the caveat that not all PDFs may format correctly. It does not support the EPUB ebook standard. However there is software available (e.g. Calibre) which can convert a non-DRM EPUB file into the unprotected Mobipocket format that the Kindle can read. Amazon offers an email-based service that will convert JPEG, GIF, PNG and BMP graphics to AZW. Amazon will also convert HTML pages and Microsoft Word (DOC) documents through the same email-based mechanism, which will send a Kindle-formatted file to the device directly for $0.15 per MB or to a personal e-mail account for free. These services can be accessed by sending emails to <kindleusername>@kindle.com and to <kindleusername>@free.kindle.com for Whispernet-delivered and free email-delivered file conversion, respectively, but these are services available just for those who bought a true Kindle device, not available for those who just own the digital Kindle application (iPhone, iPad, etc.). The file that the user wants to be converted needs to be attached to these emails. Users could also convert PDF and other files to the first-generation Kindle's supported formats using third-party software. The original Kindle supported audio in the form of MP3s and Audible audiobooks (versions 2, 3 and 4), which had to be transferred to the Kindle via USB or on an SD card.

A book may be downloaded from Amazon to a limited number of devices at the same time. The limit ranges from one to six devices, depending on an undisclosed number of licenses set by the book publisher. When the limit is reached, the users have to unregister some devices in the Manage Your Kindle page in order to add new devices.

All Kindles allow unencrypted .MOBI files (.MOBI, .PRC), .TXT files, or files in .AZW formats to be transferred to the Kindle over a USB connection. The new Kindle 3, and Kindle 2 devices with the 2.3 firmware or higher, also support PDF e-books and documents, with some limitations (font size changes are not possible, and some PDFs are displayed as images, often forcing the user to scroll horizontally). The original Kindle, and Kindle 2 devices without the 2.3 firmware upgrade, cannot read PDFs. However, on older devices, PDFs and several other file formats can be converted using a number of downloadable applications, free conversion by email, or a similar method that sends the converted content to the owner's Kindle for a fee.

Amazon purchased Mobipocket in 2005, and the Kindle AZW file format and DRM scheme are similar to the Mobipocket file format and DRM scheme, yet Kindle is not able to read DRM-protected Mobipocket books without resorting to third-party conversions tools.

Initially, Kindle 1 only supported the ISO 8859-1 (Latin 1) character set for its content; Unicode characters and non-Western characters were not supported. A firmware update in February 2009 added support for additional character sets, including ISO 8859-16.

Kindle 2 added support for Audible Enhanced (AAX) format, but dropped support for Audible versions 2 and 3. Using the experimental web browser, it was possible to download books directly on the Kindle (in MOBI, PRC and TXT formats only). Hyperlinks in a Mobipocket file could be used to download e-books but could not be used to reference books stored in the Kindle's memory. Kindle DX added native support for PDF files.

The original Kindle and Kindle 2 did not allow the user to organize books into folders. There is an option to select whether documents, subscriptions, books, or everything on the device appear on the home page. Another option orders the items on the home page according to title, author, or download date. Books may also be tagged with one or more keywords by inserting the tags into notes added to the book. Users can then search for books by tag. Kindle software version 2.5 (released July 2010) allowed for the organization of books into "Collections" which is roughly correspondent to folders except for the fact that one book may be added to multiple collections.

Kindle 2 On the Kindle 2 it was possible to view HTML files that were stored directly on the unit itself. This allowed creation of local offline content in linked web-pages that could be used even if the unit had no active connection to the internet at the time. Such pages could be accessed by directing the browser address to the local filesystem (as in file:///mnt/us/test.html for example) as opposed to a live website address (as in http://www.wikipedia.org for example.) The Kindle 3 is not able to browse local HTML in this manner, only live external websites. It is widely believed that Amazon intentionally disabled this function in the release of the Kindle 3 out of concerns that local HTML content (which is by nature not restricted by Digital Rights Management) might allow book piracy.

User-created annotations Users can bookmark, highlight and look up content. Pages can be dog-eared for reference and notes can be added to relevant content. While a book is open on the display, menu options allow users to search for synonyms and definitions from the built-in dictionary. The device also remembers the last page read for each book. Pages can be saved as a "clipping", or a text file containing the text of the currently displayed page. All clippings are appended to a single file, which can be downloaded over a USB cable.

[edit] Kindle Development Kit (KDK) On January 21, 2010, Amazon announced the forthcoming release of their Kindle Development Kit. Their aim is to allow developers to build 'active content' for the Kindle, and a beta version was announced with a February 2010 release date. A number of companies have already experimented with delivering active content through the Kindle's bundled browser,and the KDK promises 'sample code, documentation and the Kindle Simulator' together with a new revenue sharing model for developers.

The KDK is based on the Java Programming Language, specifically, the JSR 1.1.2 Personal Basis flavor of packaged Java APIs.

Business model Digital Text Platform Concurrently with the Kindle device, Amazon launched the Digital Text Platform, a system for authors to self-publish directly to the Kindle. In open beta testing as of late 2007, the platform has been promoted to established authors by e-mail and by advertisements at Amazon.com. Authors can upload documents in several formats for delivery via Whispernet and charge between $0.99 and $200.00 per download.

In a December 5, 2009 interview with The New York Times, CEO Jeff Bezos revealed that Amazon.com keeps 65% of the revenue from all ebook sales for the Kindle. The remaining 35% is split between the book author and publisher. After numerous commentators observed that Apple's popular App Store offers 70% of royalties to the publisher, Amazon began a program that offers 70% royalties to Kindle publishers who agree to certain conditions.

Other criticisms involve the business model behind Amazon's implementation and distribution of e-books. Amazon introduced a software application allowing Kindle books to be read on an iPhone or iPod Touch. Amazon soon followed with an application called "Kindle for PCs" that can be run on a Windows PC. Due to the book publisher's DRM policies, Amazon claims that there is no right of first sale with e-books. Amazon states they are licensed, not purchased; so unlike paper books, buyers do not actually own their e-books according to Amazon. This has however never been tested in the courts and the outcome of any action by Amazon is by no means certain. The law is in a state of flux in jurisdictions around the world.

Remote content removal On July 17, 2009, Amazon.com withdrew certain Kindle titles, Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell, from sale, refunded the cost to those who had purchased them, and remotely deleted these titles from purchasers' devices after discovering that the publisher lacked rights to publish the titles in question. Notes and annotations for the books made by users on their devices were left in a separate file, but "rendered useless" without the content they were directly linked to. The move prompted outcry and comparisons to Nineteen Eighty-Four itself. In the novel, books, magazines and newspapers in public archives that contradict the ruling party are edited or destroyed, long after being published; the removed materials go "down the Memory Hole", nickname for an incinerator chute. Customers and commentators noted the resemblance to the censorship in the novel, and described Amazon's action in Orwellian terms. Some critics also argued that the deletion violated the Kindle's Terms of Service, which states in part:

"Upon your payment of the applicable fees set by Amazon, Amazon grants you the non-exclusive right to keep a permanent copy of the applicable Digital Content and to view, use and display such Digital Content an unlimited number of times, solely on the Device or as authorized by Amazon as part of the Service and solely for your personal, non-commercial use." Amazon spokesman Drew Herdener stated that the company is "… changing our systems so that in the future we will not remove books from customers' devices in these circumstances." On July 23, 2009, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos posted an apology about the company's handling of the matter on Amazon's official Kindle forum. Bezos said the action was "stupid", and that the executives at Amazon "deserve the criticism received."

On July 30, 2009, Justin Gawronski, a Michigan high-school senior, and Antoine Bruguier, a California engineer, filed suit against Amazon in the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington. Gawronski argued that Amazon had violated their terms of service by remotely deleting the copy of Nineteen Eighty-Four he had purchased, in the process preventing him from accessing annotations he had written. Bruguier also had his copy deleted without his consent, and found Amazon "deceit[ful]" in an email exchange. The complaint, which requested class-action status, asked for both monetary and injunctive relief. The case was settled on September 25, 2009, with Amazon agreeing to pay $150,000 divided between the two plaintiffs, on the understanding that the law firm representing them, Kamber Edelson LLC, "...will donate its portion of that fee to a charitable organization...". The settlement also saw Amazon guaranteeing wider rights to Kindle owners over their eBooks:

For copies of Works purchased pursuant to TOS granting "the non-exclusive right to keep a permanent copy" of each purchased Work and to "view, use and display [such Works] an unlimited number of times, solely on the [Devices]. . . and solely for [the purchasers'] personal, non-commercial use", Amazon will not remotely delete or modify such Works from Devices purchased and being used in the United States unless (a) the user consents to such deletion or modification; (b) the user requests a refund for the Work or otherwise fails to pay for the Work (e.g., if a credit or debit card issuer declines to remit payment); (c) a judicial or regulatory order requires such deletion or modification; or (d) deletion or modification is reasonably necessary to protect the consumer or the operation of a Device or network through which the Device communicates (e.g., to remove harmful code embedded within a copy of a Work downloaded to a Device).

On September 4, 2009, Amazon offered affected users a restoration of the deleted ebooks, an Amazon gift certificate, or a check for the amount of $30.

In December 2010, three eBooks were removed due to violations of Amazon's publishing guidelines. For what Amazon describes as "a brief period of time," the books were unavailable for redownload by users who had already purchased them. This ability was restored after it was brought to Amazon's attention; however no remote deletion took place.

Barnes & Noble Nook
The Barnes & Noble Nook (styled "nook") is a brand of electronic-book readers developed by American book retailer Barnes & Noble, based on the Android platform. The original device was announced in the United States on 20 October 2009, and was released 30 November 2009 for US$259. The original Nook includes Wi-Fi and AT&T 3G wireless connectivity, a six-inch E Ink display, and a separate, smaller color touchscreen that serves as the primary input device. On June 21, 2010 Barnes & Noble reduced the Nook's price to US$199 and announced the launch of a new Wi-Fi-only model for US$149.

On October 26, 2010 the Nook Color was announced for a November 19, 2010 ship date.

Features
The original Nook provides a black-and-white E Ink display for viewing digital content with most navigation and additional content provided through a color touchscreen. The Color Nook provides a larger, color LCD display. Pages are turned using arrow buttons on each side of the nook. The original Nook connects to Barnes and Noble's digital store through a free connection to AT&T's 3G network or through available wi-fi connections. Users can read books without a wireless connection; disconnecting the wireless connection can extend the battery's charge to up to ten days.

The device has a MicroSD expansion slot for extra storage and a user-replaceable rechargeable battery. The battery can be charged through either an AC adapter or a micro-USB 2.0 cable, both included with new nooks. The device also includes a web browser, a built-in dictionary, Chess and Sudoku, an audio player, speakers, and a 3.5mm headphone jack.

Supported ebook file-formats with DRM include:

  • eReader PDB with Barnes & Noble's eReader DRM, sometimes called Secure eReader format
  • EPUB with Barnes & Noble's eReader DRM, used for ebooks downloaded wirelessly to the nook
  • EPUB with Adobe ADEPT DRM, sometimes called Adobe EPUB or Adobe Digital Editions format
  • PDF with Adobe ADEPT DRM (However, figures and equations will not appear)
The EPUB with eReader DRM combination is a new format created for the nook. Adobe has undertaken to include support for that combination in future releases of Adobe Reader Mobile software, to allow other reader devices to support that format.

Supported ebook file formats without DRM include:

  • EPUB
  • eReader PDB
  • PDF, including password-protected PDF
Supported sound file formats for music and audiobooks include MP3 and Ogg Vorbis, but not WMA.

Image-file formats—used for wallpapers, screen savers, and book-cover thumbnails—include JPG, GIF, PNG, and BMP.

The nook provides a "LendMe" feature allowing users to share some books with other people - depending upon licensing by the book's publisher. The purchaser is permitted to share a book once with one other user for up to two weeks. Users will be able to share purchased books with others who are using Barnes & Noble's reader application software for iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, Blackberry, Mac, Android OS and Windows as well as other.

The nook system recognizes physical Barnes & Noble stores; customers using the nook in the Barnes & Noble stores receive access to special content and offers while the device remains connected to the store's wi-fi. In addition, most e-Books in the catalog can be read for up to an hour while connected to the store wi-fi network with the 1.3 software update.

Software versions Barnes and Noble distributes software updates automatically "over the air" or through a manual download. The most recent update for the original Nook, version 1.5, was released on November 22, 2010 and added optional password protection for the device and for individual purchases, a "My Shelves" feature for organizing the user's e-book library, and automatic syncing of the last page read across multiple devices. Other improvements include faster page turning and improved search options.

Version 1.2 of the software, released in February 2010, improved the device's responsiveness, bookmarking, in-store connectivity, and battery optimization. The update also included interface changes intended to improve navigation of daily subscriptions, clarify LendMe features, and allow sorting of personal files on the device.

Version 1.3 was released in April 2010 and added a web browser (in beta), the games chess and sudoku, and more options for wi-fi connectivity. Other new features included the ability to read complete ebooks for free in Barnes and Noble stores for an hour at a time, the option to pre-order ebooks that have not yet been released, minor modifications to the user interface, and improved performance when opening ebooks and turning pages.

Version 1.4, released on June 21, 2010, added extended AT&T Wi-Fi Hotspot support, a new extra extra large font size, and a Go-To Page feature.

Hacking
Some nook users have loaded Android applications on the nook, such as Pandora‎, a web browser, a twitter client called Tweet, Google Reader and a Facebook application. Many general Android applications running on the nook present interactive areas of their interface on the E Ink display, making such applications difficult to manipulate on the device. However, Android applications optimized for the nook screen are also available, including app launchers, browsers, library managers, and an online book catalog browser and feed reader.

Although gaining superuser (root) access to install software on the nook initially required physical disassembly of the device, as of 2010 users can gain root access using software alone.

A new hardware revision introduced in August 2010, identifiable by a serial number starting with 1003, running firmware 1.4.1, requires different software than the older models. Attempting to gain root access using software designed for older models renders the unit unusable.

As of October, 2010, a new method involving spoofing a DNS entry has been found to root 1.4.1 nooks.

Availability
Barnes and Noble made the nook available for pre-order in the United States for US$259 following its launch on 20 October 2009 and began shipping on 30 November 2009. The device was available for demonstration and display in Barnes and Noble retail stores in early December. Barnes and Noble began selling the nook in-store in February 2010.

Due to the large number of pre-orders, the initial launch of the product involved multiple shipment dates depending on when customers ordered the nook. The first shipment occurred as planned on November 30, but delays occurred with subsequent shipments as demand for the product exceeded production. Further shipments occurred December 7, December 18, January 4, January 11, January 15, February 1, and February 12.

Barnes & Noble sent a $100 gift certificate via email to customers who had been promised a delivery by December 24, 2009, but whose shipment was delayed past December 25.

Reception The nook initially received mixed reviews, ranging from favorable reviews from Time, Money, and PC Magazine to more critical reviews in Engadget and the New York Times. PC Magazine noted the color touchscreen, WiFi and 3G connectivity, and large ebook library as advantages over the nook's competitors, with a lack of support for HTML and Microsoft's .doc file format seen as negatives. Money compared the nook favorably to the Amazon Kindle and the Sony Reader Touch Edition. ZDNet blogger Matthew Miller called the nook "the king of connectivity and content" and wrote favorably about the lending feature and support for PDF and ePub files. Time listed the nook as one of its "Top 10 Gadgets of 2009".

Critics pointed to the nook's "sluggish" performance and user interface design, with New York Times reviewer David Pogue writing that the nook suffered from "half-baked software." Pogue later demonstrated using a postal scale that the nook's weight differed from the product specifications advertised by Barnes & Noble (12.1 ounces rather than 11.2 ounces as the company had advertised). Engadget reviewer Joshua Topolsky argued that menu responsiveness and organization was not optimal but commented that "many of the problems seem like they could be fixed with firmware tweaks." PC Magazine wrote that the 1.3 firmware update, released after most reviews of the nook, improved the device's responsiveness: "On the original Nook, page turning took twice as long as page turning on the Kindle - two seconds compared to one second. With the 1.3 firmware update, it's about a tenth of a second slower than the Kindle, but the difference is negligible."

In early January, 2010, the nook was presented with the TechCrunch Best New Gadget Crunchie award for 2009.




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